Laboratoire de Phonétique et Phonologie Research

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Month: August 2016

Ways to Become an Endodontist

The work of an endodontist his exceptionally specific and obliges you to finish a 2 year propelled course after the general 4 year four year certification. Data about how to end up an endodontist is introduced in the article beneath.

An endodontist is a dentist who specializes in the treatment of medical issues associated with tooth pulp. The endodontists have to perform many different types of procedures on patients including surgery & replacement of teeth, treatment of infection, etc. The training period required to become an endodontist is one of the lengthiest. It is mandatory to complete a minimum of 2 years program after the 4 year bachelor’s degree course. There are many details other than these which need to be understood in order to become an endodontist.

Becoming an Endodontist

To become an endodontist, one has to first complete the bachelor’s degree in dentistry. The courses studied by students pursuing a bachelor’s degree include biology, anatomy, physiology, physics and biochemistry. The specialty training required for working as an endodontist need to be completed after the bachelor’s course. The Dental Admission Test (DAT) is used to determine whether a candidate is qualified enough to take up the course. Those students who complete the 2 year specialty program appear for the examination conducted by American Board of Endodontics. A degree called Master of Science in Dentistry is offered to the students completing this post-graduate program. Obtaining the license to work as an endodontist is important. It is necessary for practicing as an endodontist legitimately. The American Association of Endodontists provides them with the necessary certificate to work as a licensed endodontist. A separate license from state and local governments also is required in order to continue the practice as an endodontist.

What Do Endodontists Do?
There are many dental health issues for which endodontists have to provide the right treat. The infections of teeth pulp result into different types of diseases. These diseases are the area of focus in an endodontist’s job. An endodontist has to carry out different procedures and tests while examining the patient. Advanced surgical procedures and treatments follow the basic check up of teeth. The use of X-ray is often made by endodontists in order to have a look at the condition of nerves and tissues surrounding the teeth. Root canal treatment is an important medical procedure that endodontist have to perform and which requires great skills. Treatment of infection of the tooth nerve requires the endodontists to perform a root canal. In this process of treatment, infected part of the tissue is removed.

Along with the above mentioned skills required to operate on a patient’s teeth, an endodontist should also be capable of making them feel at ease. Communicating with patients in a proper manner is therefore, a necessary skill that endodontists need to possess. A good hand-eye coordination also is a must for endodontists. They have to deal with fine details of the tissues and nerves connected with teeth. Performing surgical procedures therefore, needs a great amount of patience.

Career Prospects for Endodontists
There is tremendous scope for working in the field of dentistry. Demand for these professionals is only going to increase in next 6-8 years. Employment opportunities in this field are expected to rise at a rate of 15% in the period between 2008 and 2018. The endodontist jobs are amongst highly paid and they earn anything in the range of $139,776-$221,093. However, taking into account the bonus, the income goes up to $127,743-$242,419. The details on endodontist salary range should give the readers a better idea of growth prospects in this career.

The work of an endodontist is highly specialized and involves different activities like performing surgeries and other medical examinations. It is necessary to maintain a high score throughout the 4-year bachelor’s degree course in order to seek admission to the advanced dentistry course that lasts for 2 years. Operating on the tooth requires in-depth knowledge and hands-on experience in treating the patients. The candidate/student who passes all these ‘eligibility’ tests is considered qualified enough for working as an endodontist. One should obtain a rough idea on how to become an endodontist through information presented in this article.

Blissfully Surprising Health Benefits of Flossing Your Teeth

Pomegranates can likewise contribute in disposing of dental microbes as these natural products disable the capacity of microscopic organisms to adhere to the surface of the teeth. Along these lines, aside from brushing, washing, and flossing teeth, try to have pomegranates routinely.

If you thought meticulous brushing everyday was enough to maintain dental health, then it’s high time that you got your facts checked. When talking about good dental hygiene, it would be ridiculous not to mention flossing. The practice of flossing is just as important as brushing to keep your teeth healthy. Just a few minutes of flossing after every meal will ensure optimal dental health for a lifetime. It will certainly help reduce the number of dental visits, in turn allowing you to save money on expensive dental care.

Flossing is as important as cleaning the tongue after brushing. The American Dental Association (ADA) suggests that flossing prior to brushing can be helpful to improve dental hygiene. The benefits of flossing are much more than enjoying excellent dental health. Flossing can also play a critical role in maintaining general health.

Why is Flossing Good for Health?

✔ Protects Your Teeth from Cavities

The food debris that gets trapped between the crevices of teeth after meals does not get dislodged by simply swishing the mouth properly, or even brushing twice a day. The brush is simply ineffective in cleaning every nook and corner of your teeth. These food particles that are stuck become breeding grounds for bacteria, eventually causing tooth decay and formation of cavities. All this can be easily avoided by flossing daily. Flossing reaches those areas of teeth that cannot be accessed with regular brushing. So, when you floss daily, the tiny food particles will never accumulate in the oral cavity, thereby keeping your pearly whites intact.

✔ Prevents Formation of Tartar

Tartar buildup is primarily responsible for causing a number of gum diseases, including gingivitis and periodontitis. However, this can never happen if flossing is an integral part of daily dental care. The tiny food particles that are left in the mouth, often get collected along the gumline, the point of contact between the teeth and the gums. This leftover debris forms a sticky, colorless residue on the gumline, commonly referred to as dental plaque. When left unchecked, plaque hardens to form a stone-like material, known as tartar. If left untreated, this hardened plaque, that is usually black in color, can damage the gums. The good news is that plaque (before it turns tartar) can always be removed by flossing. Daily flossing can help prevent buildup of plaque, thereby protecting gum health.

✔ Freshens Bad Breath

As mentioned before, food particles that remain in the oral activity, despite brushing properly, leads to proliferation of dental bacteria, which is the primary contributor to bad breath. The stinky breath emanating from the mouth is due to the secretion of foul-smelling sulfur compounds by dental bacteria. Daily flossing can play a major role in stopping bacteria from forming in those tricky places, in turn helping improve bad breath.

✔ Prevents Tooth Discoloration

Nasty stains on the teeth are often an indication of not flossing as part of your daily oral care routine. Yellowish discoloration of teeth (stained smile) is common in people who ignore flossing. Absence of flossing is often accompanied by buildup of plaque. This dental plaque, that is a pale, yellowish film, not only accumulates in between teeth, but also on the surface of teeth. Thus, plaque formation robs your teeth of their whiteness. So, if you are serious about maintaining the natural sparkling shine of your teeth, it is essential that you floss daily.

✔ Other Benefits
Small research shows that people with gum diseases carry a greater risk of developing diseases related to the heart and the lungs. As flossing plays a key role in preventing gum diseases, it seems you have just another reason to floss daily.

The medical fraternity have come up with several hypotheses to explain the link between gum diseases and increased risk of heart diseases. Pathogens that trigger gum diseases in the oral activity pass down and reach the heart, which eventually gets infected. Another hypothesis is that the bacteria from the mouth spread beyond the infected site and enter the bloodstream. The bacteria circulating in the bloodstream can also contribute in the development of clogged arteries, leading to heart problems.

There are also speculations that bacteria residing in the mouth may trickle down and affect the respiratory system. So, people affected with gum diseases may suffer from lung infections. Although there is no scientific evidence to back up these theories, they do sound sensible, making us aware of a plausible benefit of flossing daily.

Flossing Frequency
Be it breakfast, lunch, dinner or an evening snack, you need to floss after every meal. However, if you find this advice difficult to incorporate in your busy lifestyle, flossing at least once, just before retiring to bed can also assist in keeping your oral health optimal.

For optimal cleaning, you need to know the correct way of flossing your teeth. Flossing teeth hurriedly can actually damage the gums and cause bleeding. Flossing incorrectly can actually defeat the purpose of starting to floss daily. Also, flossing too much can also cause bleeding. So, consult a dentist or someone who has been flossing for quite some time, before you incorporate it into your oral care routine.
Brushing twice daily and flossing at least once a day is essential, but that does not mean you should forget to practice basic oral hygiene such as swishing the mouth thoroughly after every meal, especially after having sweets. So, whenever you eat something, make it a point to rinse your mouth in order to keep your oral health at its best.

Dental Charts to Help You Understand the Tooth Numbering System

Most grown-ups have 32 teeth, which are alluded to as perpetual teeth. The principal set of teeth that show up amid adolescence are alluded to as essential or deciduous teeth. There are 20 essential teeth that emit by the age of 6 months, and are shed amid adolescence. Generally, the last essential tooth is shed by 11-12 years. When one achieves the age of 13, 28 of the 32 changeless teeth have emitted. The last four changeless teeth normally emit by the age of 25.

Both the maxillary (upper jaw) and mandibular (lower jaw) arches contain similar types of teeth. There are four types of teeth that are present in the upper as well as lower jaw. These are called incisors, canines, premolars, and molars.

In dentistry, permanent and deciduous teeth are identified with the help of numbering systems. Here’s some information on the classification of the teeth and the popular numbering systems.
Classification of Permanent and Deciduous Teeth

The front four teeth in the upper and lower jaw are called incisors. The two teeth in the center are called central incisors, whereas the teeth on either side of the central incisors are called lateral incisors. These help us in cutting or biting food. Canines, which are also called cuspids, are slightly pointed. These help in tearing food particles while chewing. Separated by the incisors, there are two canines each, in the upper and lower jaw. Four premolars are present in each dental arch. Two premolars are located behind each canine in both arches. These help us crush food while chewing. Molars are classified into first, second, and third molars. Normally, six molars are present in each dental arch. These are located behind the second premolar on both sides of each arch. These are bigger than the premolars, and help us grind food into smaller particles. The third molars are also referred to as wisdom teeth; not every person may develop wisdom teeth.

Deciduous teeth are the first set of 20 teeth that appear in childhood. It must be noted that children don’t have premolars. Only adults have premolars, which are a part of permanent teeth only.
Dental Numbering Systems
It is believed that the first dental numbering system was proposed by a Hungarian dentist named Adolf Zsigmondy in 1861. Though more than twenty dental notation or tooth numbering systems have been developed over the years, most dentists use one of the three tooth numbering systems that are given below:

➠ Universal Numbering System (widely used by the dentists in the United States)
➠ Palmer Notation System
➠ FDI World Dental Federation Two-digit Notation (International)
Universal Numbering System for Adult Teeth
In the universal numbering system, the third molar on the right in the upper or maxillary dental arch is assigned the number 1. The teeth are numbered along with upper dental arch from right to left, as 1 to 16, with the last molar tooth back on the top left of the upper dental arch as the number 16. Similarly, in the lower (mandibular) dental arch or jaw, the numbering continues, with the third molar on the left being given the number 17. The teeth in the lower jaw are numbered from left to right, as 17 to 32, with the third molar or the tooth farthest back on the bottom right side of the mouth as the number 32.

All the adult teeth are numbered in this manner, even if the third molars or wisdom teeth have not yet erupted, or some of the teeth have been removed due to dental problems.
Universal Numbering for Primary or Deciduous Teeth
As mentioned earlier, there are a total of 20 primary teeth. In the original system, these were numbered as 1 to 20, as per the method used for adults. The only difference was that a small letter “d” followed each number to suggest that the teeth are deciduous or primary. These days, dentists use another version of the Universal Numbering System for children. Instead of numbering the teeth, each tooth is assigned a letter. Children’s teeth are assigned upper case letters from A through T. The second primary molar in the upper jaw on the right is assigned the letter A, and the numbering continues in the alphabetical order, with the second primary molar on the left in the upper jaw being assigned the letter J. Similarly, in the lower jaw, the second primary molar on the left is assigned the letter K, and the numbering continues in the order till T, which is the letter that is assigned to the second primary molar on the right.

Palmer Notation System
Mainly used by some orthodontists, pedodontists, and oral surgeons, the Palmer notation method is the method followed by dentists in the United Kingdom. It was earlier called the ‘Zsigmondy system’, after Adolf Zsigmondy, a dentist from Hungary who came up with this concept of tooth numbering system in 1861. The teeth were divided into four quadrants, and the adult teeth in each quadrant were numbered 1 to 8, whereas the 20 primary or milk teeth were depicted with a quadrant grid using Roman numerals I, II, III, IV, and V to number the teeth from the midline. Corydon Palmer, a dentist from Ohio made changes to this dental notation, replacing the Roman numerals with letters in case of primary teeth. This notation involves the use of a symbol ( ┘└ ┐┌) for each quadrant, with the number or letter assigned to the tooth position from the midline that divides the teeth into four quadrants.

While adult teeth in each quadrant are numbered 1 to 8, the five deciduous (milk) teeth in each quadrant are indicated by A to E. Thus, number or letter for a particular type of tooth in the upper and lower jaw would be the same, but the symbol for the quadrant would be different. Right and left quadrants of the upper jaw would be denoted by ┘and└, respectively. On the other hand, the right and left quadrants of the lower jaw would be denoted by ┐and┌, respectively. Though the Palmer method was suggested for the purpose of dental notation earlier in the United States, the American Dental Association adopted the Universal numbering system, as it was easier to type due to the absence of symbols.
The Federation Dentaire Internationale Numbering System (FDI)
This is a two-digit system that is used worldwide. For permanent or adult teeth, the mouth is divided into quadrants that are numbered from 1 to 4 in the clockwise direction, starting from the upper-right or the right side of the upper jaw, as seen by the dentist. It must be noted that patient’s right would correspond to left side of the dental chart. Every tooth is numbered on the basis of the quadrant and its position. So, in the first quadrant, that is right side of the upper jaw starting from the central incisor, the central incisor will be numbered as 11, the next tooth or the lateral incisor in the first quadrant will be numbered 12. The numbering of the teeth in the first quadrant will continue in this manner, till the third molar that will be numbered 18. Similarly, the teeth in the second quadrant (central incisor to the third molar) or the left side of the upper jaw will be numbered as (21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, and 28). The adult teeth in the third and fourth quadrant would be numbered from 31 to 38 and 41 to 48 respectively.

In case of the 20 milk teeth, the mouth is divided into four quadrants that are numbered from 5 to 8 in the clockwise direction, starting from the upper-right or right side of the upper jaw (central incisor to second primary molar), as observed by the dentist. Again, the child’s right would correspond to the left side of the dental chart. Every tooth is numbered on the basis of the quadrant and its position. So, in the upper-right quadrant, that is right side of the upper jaw starting from the central incisor, the central incisor will be numbered as 51, the next tooth or the lateral incisor in the first quadrant will be numbered 52. The numbering of the teeth in this quadrant will continue in this manner, till the second primary molar that will be numbered 55. Similarly, the teeth in the upper-left quadrant (central incisor to the second primary molar) or the left side of the upper jaw will be numbered as (61, 62, 63, 64, and 65). The teeth in the lower-left and lower-right quadrant would be numbered from 71 to 75 and 81 to 85 respectively.
Though we would find it easier to refer to the specific names given to each tooth, dental charts or tooth numbering systems are tools used by the dentists to refer to the adult or primary teeth. If you look at the dental charts to understand the tooth numbering system, you will realize that the numbering system is not that difficult to understand.

Healthy Heart Diet Recipes

unduhan-6Cardiovascular ailments (a class of sicknesses that includes the heart and the veins) are the greatest executioner in many parts of the world today. Confirm recommends that a low-fat eating routine is successful in bringing down the cholesterol levels and the pulse.


Parmesan Chicken Bake

Chicken breast, boneless, without the skin, and fat removed: 6 fillets
Bread, whole-wheat: 4 slices
Buttermilk, low-fat: ½ cup
Parmesan cheese, grated: 6 tablespoons
Olive oil: 2 tablespoons
Parsley, chopped finely: 1½ tablespoons
Paprika: 1½ teaspoons
Garlic powder: ¾ teaspoon
Thyme: ½ teaspoon
Vegetable oil spray
Begin by preheating the oven to 450°F. Then take a rectangular-shaped baking sheet and a slightly smaller rectangular-shaped cake tin. Spray some vegetable oil and place the rack on the baking sheet and it keep aside.
Next, rinse the chicken fillets and pat them dry followed by keeping them aside. Now, put the bread pieces into a food processor or blender and process until it turns into fine crumbs.
Put these crumbs in a shallow dish. Add thyme, parsley, cheese, paprika, and garlic powder into it and blend well. Then pour the buttermilk into another shallow dish. Then immerse the fillets in the buttermilk first, then in the breadcrumbs, and lastly place them on the baking rack.
Then, drizzle some olive oil onto each of the fillets and bake for about 15 minutes. After that, turn over the fillets, bake for 10 more minutes, and serve.
Spicy Beans and Tofu Curry

Mushrooms, sliced: 6 – 8
Red chilies, diced: 3
Green onions, diced: 2
Tofu, firm: 7 ounces
Green beans: 4 ounces
Coconut milk, or skimmed milk: 1½ cups
Curry paste: 1 tablespoon
Soy sauce, light: 1 tablespoon
Sugar: 2 teaspoons
Salt to taste
Heat a pot, put coconut milk in it, and cook until it begins to separate.
Next, add the red chilies, soy sauce, curry paste, salt, sugar and blend them well.
Next, add the tofu and mushrooms and let it come to a boil.
Then, put in the green beans and cook until they become soft and tender.
Lastly, put the green onions and cook for about a minute before you begin to bite into it.
Fish and Vegetable Bake

Carrot, medium-sized, cut into thin strips: 1
Dressed rainbow trout, sea trout, or pike: 2 pounds
Broccoli, broken into small florets: 1 cup
Yellow summer squash, sliced thinly: ½ cup
Oregano, dried, and crumbled: ½ teaspoon
Basil, dried, and crumbled: ½ teaspoon
Salt: ¼ teaspoon
Black pepper: ⅛ teaspoon
Begin by preheating the oven to 350°F. Then, heat some water in a saucepan and bring it to a boil.
Next, cook the squash, carrots, and broccoli in it for about a minute. Follow this by draining the water and keeping it aside.
Then, rinse the fish and pat it dry. Next, tear one or two pieces of foil, large enough, to hold the fish. Place the fish in the middle of the foil.
Then, take a small bowl and put oregano, basil, pepper, and salt in it. Mix it thoroughly and place half of this mixture inside the fish’s cavity.
Then, arrange the vegetables around the fish and pour the remaining herb mixture on the surface.
Lastly, wrap the fish and vegetables with the foil, seal it well, and then place it on a baking sheet. Bake for about 40 minutes or so, and your delectable bake is ready to be devoured on.
Suggested Lifestyle Changes

Choose the Right fats
Trans and saturated fats are known to increase the chances of a cardiac arrest. These are generally found in animal-derived processed foods like butter, cheese, milk, and meat. These foods are generally high in cholesterol. Include foods that contain healthy fats, like mono-unsaturated fats (contained in seafood, canola oil, and olive oil) and polyunsaturated fats (contained in corn oil and safflower).

Reduce the Intake of Calories
Consuming too many calories results in weight gain which can lead to heart diseases.

Reduce the Consumption of Sodium
Although sodium is necessary in the diet, we generally have a tendency of consuming it in excess. Reducing the intake of sodium helps in lowering the blood pressure, which in turn can minimize the chances of a cardiac arrest.

Consuming fiber-rich sources of food like whole grains, fruits, and vegetables is extremely beneficial for the blood pumping organ. These foods are also high in minerals and vitamins. By just bringing in certain changes in the lifestyle, we can reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases to a very large extent.